|29-01-09, 02:55 PM||#1 (permalink)|
Join Date: Jul 2008
Glossary of Television Terms Updated
Glossary of Television Terms
16:9 - The aspect ratio used for widescreen television
4:3 - The aspect ratio used for conventional television
AAL - ATM Adaptation Layer
AD - Audio Description
AES - Audio Engineering Society
AFD - Active Format Descriptor
Analogue Text - a term used on the Sat. forums to refer to the text systems broadcast on ATT
API - Application Programming Interface
ARC - Aspect Ratio Converter
ASI - Asynchronous Serial Interface
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATT - Analogue Terrestrial Television
AU - Access Unit
BAT - Bouquet Association Table
BBCi - The BBC's digital text system
BER - Bit Error Ratio. A measure of the quality of the signal. (Lower the better.)
bslbf - "bit string, left bit first"
CA - Conditional Access
CAM - Conditional Access Module
CAT - Conditional Access Table
cbr - constant bit rate
Coax - Coaxial cable, having a central wire core enclosed in a plastic insulating 'dielectric' tube and surrounded by a woven metal wire and/or foil shield layer.
CI - Common Interface
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRT - Cathode Ray Tube
DAB - Digital Audio Broadcasting
DOG - on-screen channel logo (Digitally Overlayed Graphic)
DRM - 1. Digital Radio Mondial 2. Digital Rights Management
DTG - Digital Television Group
DTS - Decoding Time Stamp
DTT - Digital Terrestrial Television
DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting
DVD - Digital Versatile Disc (sometimes Digital Video Disc)
DVI - Digital Video Interface
DVR - Digital Video Recorder
DX - long distance reception
EBU - European Broadcasting Union
ECM - Entitlement Control Messaging (not Electronic Countermeasure!)
EIT - Event Information Table
EMM - Entitlement Management Message
EPG - Electronic Programme Guide
ERP - Effective Radiated Power (of a transmitter)
ETR - European Telecommunication Report
ETS - European Telecommunication Standard
ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
fec - forward error correction
Freeview 1. The entire UK DTT system (colloquial meaning) 2. The free channels on the UK DTT system (precise/pedantic meaning)
FTA - Free To Air. Programmes which are broadcast unencrypted and can be viewed on any suitable receiver without subscription charges.
FTV - Free To View. Programmes which are encrypted but can be decoded by use of a specific receiver (and sometimes a viewing card) which can be bought for a one-off payment (no subscription charges). The purpose of FTV is to restrict viewing to a specific geographical area - usually to comply with licensing conditions.
GOP - Group of Pictures
GPS - Global Positioning Satellite
HD - High Definition
HDMI - High-Definition Multimedia Interface
IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
IDTV - Integrated Digital television
IPTV - Internet Protocol Television
IRD - Integrated Receiver Decoder
IRN - Independent Radio News
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO - International Organisation for Standardisation
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
LCN - Logical Channel Number
LNB - Low Noise Block-downconverter (with amplifier). Its purpose is to convert a block of high frequencies ('microwave') to a block of lower frequencies which can be passed down a coaxial cable. Normally uses low-noise HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). LNB is often (wrongly) interpreted as "Low Noise Block" or "Low Noise Blocker".
Single-output LNB - a "universal" LNB with one output
Twin-output LNB - a "universal" LNB with two independently-controlled outputs
Quad-output LNB - a "universal" LNB with 4 independently-controlled outputs
Octo LNB - a "universal" LNB with 8 independently-controlled outputs
Quattro LNB - a "universal" LNB with 4 fixed outputs, each presenting one "band"
Dual-LNB - a "universal" LNB comprising two LNBs in one casing
Monobloc LNB - a dual-LNB with DiSEqC switching built-in
(Please note that American usage of these terms differs from European usage.)
LNC - Low Noise Converter (basically an LNB without an amplifier. Not used for domestic products).
lsb - least significant bit
LVDS - Low-Voltage Differential Standard
LX - local reception
MJD - Modified Julian Date
MFN - Multi Frequency Network
MHEG - the system used in the UK for digital text (Multimedia and Hypermedia Experts Group)
MOD - see RFMOD
MPEG - Moving Pictures Expert Group
msb - most significant bit
MSTS - Multi-Service Transport Stream
Multiplex - a bundle of digital channels broadcast as a single entity
MUX - Multiplex
NDA - Non-Disclosure Agreement
NICAM - Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex. A method for broadcasting stereo audio.
NIT - Network Information Table
NVOD - Near Video On Demand
OAD - On-Air Download
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
osd - on-screen display
PAL - Phase Alternating Line. A method used for building a TV picture from transmitted 'lines' of information.
PAT - Program Association Table
PCR - Programme Clock Reference
PDC - Programme Delivery Control
PDH - Plesiochronous Digital Hierachy
PES - Packetised Elementary Stream
PFL - Pre-fade Listen. Facility on a mixing desk that allows the operator to listen to a piece of audio and set levels before putting the audio to air. Also referred to as 'cue'
Phono - A type of connection used for audio (RCA).
PID - Packet IDentifier
PMT - Program Map Table
PPL - Phonographic Performance Ltd. Body that collects royalties in respect of music played by radio stations on behalf of record companies.
PPM - Peak Program Meter. Meters on a mixing desk that monitor audio levels
PPV - Pay Per View
prbs - pseudo-random binary sequence
PRS - Performing Right Society. Body that collects royalties in respect of music played by radio stations for artists and composers.
PSB - Public Service Broadcaster
PSI - Program Specific Information
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
PTS - Presentation Time Stamp
PVR - Personal Video Recorder
RCA - A type of connection used for audio (Phono).
RGB - 'Red, Green, Blue' - the primary colours used to make up a TV picture. It's commonly used when referring to outputs from a set-top box into a TV.
QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QOS - Quality Of Service
QPSK - Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
RF - Radio Frequency. Often used to refer to connections carrying TV signals in the UHF band.
RFMOD - RF modulator. A unit which superimposes video and audio signals onto a Radio Frequency carrier signal.
rpchof - "remainder polynomial coefficients, highest order first"
RS - Reed-Solomon
RST - Running Status Table
SCART - The standard method of connecting SD television equipment (Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs)
SD - Standard Definition
SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierachy
SDI - Serial Digital Interface
SDT - Service Description Table
SDV - Serial Digital Video
SECAM - A system similar to PAL (used mostly for French analogue TV transmissions).
SFN - Single Frequency Network
SI - Service Information
SLA - Service Level Agreement
SMS - Subscriber Management System
SNR or S/R - Signal to Noise ratio
SSI - Synchronous Serial Interface
SSTS - Single Service Transport Stream
ST - Stuffing Table
STB - Set-top Box
TDT - Time and Date Table
TLA - Three Letter Acronym
TOT - Time Offset Table
TS - Transport Stream
TTX - Teletext
TUTV - Top-Up TV
TV - Television
UHF - Ultra High Frequency (wavebands)
uimsbf - unsigned integer most significant bit first
UHF - Ultra High Frequency (frequency band used mostly for TV transmissions)
UNI - User-Network Interface
UTC - "Universal Time, Co-ordinated"
vbi - vertical blanking interval
vbr - variable bit rate
VCI - Virtual Channel Identifier
VCR - Video Cassette Recorder. Now being phased out and replaced by DVD recorders and PVRs
VHF - Very High Frequency (frequency band used mostly for radio transmissions)
VO - Voice-over. Typically a TV or Radio presenter or actor reading a script.
VoD - Video On Demand
VPI - Virtual Path Identifier
WSS - Wide Screen Signalling (when on line 23) or Wide Screen Switching (as seen by the viewer).
|24-04-09, 06:55 PM||#2 (permalink)|
Join Date: Jul 2008
Glossary of Television Terms Updated
ASTRA Digital Radio. Transmission system used by ASTRA in order to broadcast twelve stereo radio programmes in hi-fi quality on only one sound subcarrier of a satellite TV transponder
Automatic Frequency Control. Electronic circuit that connects the undesirably deviations from a selected frequency in the receiver, in order to stabilize reception of a channel.
Usually a reference to the receiver type but means that the signal is sent on an Analogue wave
This is a CAM which emulates S.E.C.A.’s Mediaguard system
System currently comprising 10 satellites (ASTRA 1A to 1H) at 19.2° East, and ASTRA 2A at 28.2° East. (Societe Europenne des Satellites) based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg.
Sound signal. That part of a TV or radio transmission that is heard.
Term used for the sum total (range) of frequencies contained within a specific band.
Abbreviation used to mark switches, buttons or connections intended to connect or activate audio-visual (audio and/or video) equipment. For instance, the AV connection between the receiver and the TV set is usually brought about by means of a Scart cable, as this provides better quality than using antenna cable.
Abbreviation for a mounting system for parabolic dish antenna that can be adjusted in two axes - azimuth and elevation
The satellite dishes angle to the satellite, an Az/El mount is used on a dish to set it’s angle to the satellite.
A band is a range of frequencies in a range between two end points determined by general consent eg VHF, FM
A range of frequencies together making up a particular band.
The radiation from a satellite transponder. This may have a circular, elliptical or other shape, when looked at in diameter. The area, where this beam of radiation intersects with the Earth's surface is the reception area, also known as the footprint. The shape of the reception area depends on the elevation angle of the satellite as well as on the size of the broadcast angle of the transmitter antenna.
An encryption system and variant of Irdeto owned by Mindport.
In computer sciences, the smallest elemental unit of data. A bit exists in only one of two possible states "Zero (or On)" or "One (or Off)". By adding together a number of bits you can create a digital "word", known as a byte.
A group of television channels owned by the same company, e.g. British Sky Broadcasting, TPS, Canal Digital, Viasat, Canal+, Sky Italia and Premiere.
Passive construction element in a distribution system designed to divert part of the signals from the trunk line. The level of the branched-off signal is dependent on the branch damping of the branch connector.
In computer sciences, a group or packet of 8, 16, 32 etc, bits used in data transmission. Larger units are Kilobytes (1024 bytes) and Megabytes (1024 Kilobytes each). This deviates from the expected metric progression (1,000, 1,000,000 etc) because of the binary structure of computer data. Thus one Kilobyte is actually 210.
Named after Arthur C. Clark, the Belt is situated 38,000 Kilometres above the Earth. This is where all the geostationary satellites are positioned either east or west. Satellite dishes face south in the Northern Hemisphere, and north in the Southern Hemisphere.
Common Interface (CI)
Most CAMs are CI type unless they are embedded or cardless. This is the empty slot on the receiver, into which a Conditional access Moduke (CAM), is inserted.
Composite video is the format of an analouge television signal before it is modulated onto an RF carrier. It is usually in a standard format such as NTSC, PAL or SECAM. It is a composite of three source signals called Y, U and V (together referred to as YUV). Y represents the brightness or luminance of the picture and includes synchronizing pulses, so that by itself it could be displayed as a monochrome picture. U and V between them carry the colour information. They are first mixed with two orthogonal phases of a colour carrier signal to form a signal called the chrominance. Y and UV are then added together. Since Y is a baseband signal and UV has been mixed with a carrier, this addition is equivalent to frequency-division multiplexing.
Conditional Access System (CAS)
Encryption, there are many variants on the market, some of those used in Europe are: Videoguard, Irdeto, Viaccess, Conax, Seca, Cryptoworks, Mediaguard and Nagravision.
Encryption System owned by Telenor and Canal Digital, used in the Scandinavian countries, Bulgaria and by a hanfull of other broadcasters.
Conditional Access Module (CAM)
A removable decoding module used in digital satellite and digital terrestrial receivers, there are many types of CAMs on the market, including programmable types like the Matrix and Joker CAMs.
An encryption system owned by Philips.
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a digital radio technology for broadcasting radio stations, used in several countries, particularly in Europe. As of 2006, approximately 1,000 stations worldwide broadcast in the DAB format.
Data transfer using numbers = allows compression because numbers can be sent faster than the data is needed – thus allowing several channels to be sent at the same time.
Digital Satellite Equipment Control, often thought of as a Eutelsat system it was actually STAB Italia http://www.stab-italia.com that designed the protocol for DiSEqC and have further developed it with USALS.
Reflects the signal from a satellite towards the LNB.
Rewritable Memory device found inside Receivers, CAMs, and Cards
Usually refering to a builtin encryption like Videoguard in Sky Digital receivers.
Scrambling of a signal usually for the purposes of selling a service, or restricting a signal to a certain country for copyright reasons.
Forward Error Correction = often given as ľ for example in this case the 4th bit of data corrects any errors in the first 3 bits.
Front section of a modern LNB = Basically a wave Guide which bounces the High frequency signals down to the LNB Poloriser.
A reprogrammable memory used in Cards CAMs and Satellite receivers.Freesat
Freesat is a free-to-air digital satellite platform run as a joint venture by the BBC and ITV.
Free To Air (FTA)
Free To Air services, are not encrypted and require no card or subscription for viewing. All of the BBC's domestic TV and radio services are FTA.
Free To View (FTV)
Free To View channels do not require a subscription, the channels are however encrypted and require a Sky freesat card. These cards will give you access to Channel Four, Sky Three, Five, Five Life and Five US.
Freeview is a free-to-air digital terrestrial platform available through ground based (terrestrial) transmitters.
Full HD 1080
The number "1080" represents 1,080 lines of vertical resolution (1080 horizontal scan lines), while the letter p stands for progressive scan (meaning the image is not interlaced). 1080p can be referred to as full HD or full high definition to differentiate it from other HDTV video modes.
These satellites appear from earth to be stationary because they orbit the earth above the equator and their distance and speed means that they take 24 hours to circumnavigate the planet which is the same time as it takes for the earth to rotate once. They are sometimes referred to as TV Satellite satellites.
1 Ghz = 1000,000,000 Cycles per second.
The High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a compact audio/video connector interface for transmitting uncompressed digital streams. HDMI connects digital audio/video sources such as set-top boxes, Blu-ray Disc players, personal computers, video game consoles, and AV receivers to compatible digital audio devices, computer monitors, and digital televisions.
HD ready concerns the abilities of television receivers to display high-definition pictures. The term has had official use in Europe since January 2005 when, EICTA (European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Technology Industry Associations) announced the requirements for the label.
Refers to any display that is capable of accepting and displaying a high-definition signal at either 720p, 1080i or 1080p using a component video or digital input, and does not have a built-in HD-capable tuner
High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition TV, or SDTV). HDTV is digitally broadcast because digital television (DTV) requires less bandwidth if sufficient video compression is used.
An encryption system owned by Mindport.
1 Khz = 1000 Cycles per second.
|24-04-09, 07:03 PM||#3 (permalink)|
Join Date: Jul 2008
Glossary of Television Terms Updated
Low Noise Block (LNB)
The LNB down converts the High frequency signals from a satellite to a range which can be “seen” by the satellites tuner using a Local Oscilator - Typically an LNB will have two of these a “Universal” LNB will have a Local Oscillator set at 9.75 Ghz and another at 10.6 Ghz (this higher one is activated by the receiver sending a 22Khz Tone.
This allows a second receiver to be connected to a dish thus expanding the potential – the second receiver could be an analogue receiver connected to a digital receiver – or a second digital receiver – in the case of the later being a second receiver which has USALS BOTH receivers can control the dish position, but watch out always leave the second receiver on a vertical channel otherwise the first receiver may not be able to select a vertical channel when it is on.
Nagra France develops and markets the Mediaguard conditional access system.
Nagravision is a market leader in the field of conditional access for digital TV and broadband Internet. Leading operators are equipped with its technology which ensures secure access to their services via more than 35 million decoders (analog and digital).
Null Modem Cable
A Crossed Serial lead with 2 female ends used for two PC’s or two receivers or one PC and one receiver to talk to another, used for upgrading a satellite receiver with new software. Pin wiring on a serial null modem cable is as follows Pins 1-1, 2-3, 3-2, 4-6, 5-5, 6-4, 7-8, 8-7, 9-9.
Most common dish type the dish, the signal is reflected down into the LNB.
Progammable Intergrated Circuit = a small computer used in satellite receivers CAMs and Cards.
PID (Packet Identify)
Bits of data joined together, every digital TV channel has a Video, Audio and PCR PID.
Mount which usually fits on a pole and gives the dish the ability to Pivot on a line which is parallel to the two poles of the planet.
Usually part of a Modern LNB, it selects vertical or horizontal polorization of the signal – Circular left and right hand polorization of signals is also possible though rare – usually Polorisation is selected by different voltages sent by the receiver 13Volts = vertical 17v = Horizontal.
Encryption system owned by Scientific Atlantic, used to distribute channels to cable operators and TV service providers.
Prime Focus Dish
Dish which points directly at the satellite and has a center feed.
Pay Per View (PPV)
Many operators have PPV channels for films orspecial events, the customer only pays for the programmes watched.
Receiver, Satellite receiver or Tuner, used to receive TV and radio transmissions from satellites
RGB stands for Red Green and Blue, these are the 3 colours used to display a TV picture. Using RGB the picture is sent as three separate colours corresponding to the three colours used in a TV to display the picture. A high resolution RGB picture can have a bandwidth of over 10MHz and this is without doubt the best way to send picture information to a TV or display. Component video Component video is comprised of a Y signal (this is the luminance being a mixture of red, green and blue), and two colour difference signals, referred to as either V & U or Cr & Cb respectively. Both require a sync signal to generate the required timing inside the TV so that a viewable picture can be built up. When using a DVD player it may be better to use Y Cr Cb output , as they generate these straight from the digital signals. There are more than a few options for sending the sync signal with RGB. The norm is for 75R terminated signals and 0.7V peak with higher voltage producing a brighter image.
A satellite dish is a type of parabolic reflector A parabolic reflector (also known as a parabolic dish or a parabolic mirror) is a reflective device formed in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution. Parabolic reflectors can either collect or distribute energy such as light, sound, or radio waves
Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs (SCART), connector used for combined audio and video connections.
Encryption of a satellite signal, usually a subscription and Smart Card are neede to de-crypt the encrypted signal.
TV Operator/Provider, a company or organisation, which supplies a TV or Radio service or station.
The use of different types of encryption system at the same time.
A device used to act as a Key for the CAM, the card is interrogated by the CAM to check if the Card has the rights paid for the service you have selected SubscriptionPaying for a service, provided by a Service Provider.
The carrier on the satellite is made up of a sequence of joined together pulses to make a continuous signal. Each pulse is a symbol. According to the modulation method each symbol represents 1, 2 or 3 etc bits of transmission rate data. As a general rule if you have bandwidth to spare, then use a lower order modulation or a low rate FEC (like 1/2 or 2/3) to spread the signal out. If you have power to spare then use a higher order modulation and/or higher rate FEC (like 3/4 ot 7/8). Ideally you want to use all of both the available bandwidth and power simultaneously. If you use larger reception dishes you will always be able to increase the system capacity. If you are doing a point to point link it is worth using larger dishes. If you have thousands of receive dishes then the aggregate cost of these is significant and you will want to allow smaller sizes even though this reduces system capacity and increases space segment costs.
T & K Mount
Type of Mount named after the shape of the mount helps to mount a Pole perfectly vertical.
This is the part of the receiver.
Ultra High Frequency.
Input & output to insert the Satellite TV signal into the normal TV Band.
USALS (Universal Satellite Equipment Control)
An advancement of DiSEqC 1.2 which allows the receiver to communicate it’s operating position with the Motor Mount which must also be USALS compatible. This enhancement makes fitting a motorized DiSEqC 1.2 system very easy, as you only need to enter the Longitude and Latitude of your current position in order for the mount to calculate where every satellite is situated.
This type of LNB has a Local Oscilator set at 9.75 and another set at 10.60 the higher one is instigated when the receiver sends a 22Khz Tone.
Encryption system owned by France Telecom, there are two main types Viaccess 1 and Viaccess 2.
Viaccess Red CAM update
Viaccess Red CAM CA modules can be updated via the Hot Bird satellite at 13 degrees east. Go to the “*** View channel which can be found at 12.092 GHz Horizontal, Symbol rate: 27500 FEC: 3/4.
Now do the following:
1. Turn off the receiver in to standby.
2. Turn on the receiver again on the same channel, then go to Menu and choose Common Interface and the OK. After about 15-20 minutes your Red CAM module should be updated to Version 4.81.
3. When the upgrade is finished, remove the module from the receiver and then re-insert it, it is now ready for use.
Conditional Access System (CAS), owned by NDS and used by Sky Digital for encrypting channels on the Sky Digital platform. Videoguard is also used by Sky Italia and Viasat.
W NO ENTRIES
X NO ENTRIES
Y NO ENTRIES
Z NO ENTRIES