Advanced Windows skills

Discussion in 'Internet' started by AhmedMostafa257, Apr 11, 2006.

  1. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Most of us do use windows since alot of years but still there is alot of things we don't know in that great operating system

    There are a number of different editions of Windows XP, each of which is designed for different users and computing devices. The following editions are part of the Windows family:
    ■ Windows XP Professional Edition
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition
    ■ Windows XP Media Center Edition
    ■ Windows XP Tablet PC Edition
    ■ Windows XP 64-Bit Edition
    Windows XP Professional Edition:
    Windows XP Professional Edition is intended for computers that are part of a corporate network, for the majority of computers on small networks, and for home users who need certain advanced capabilities. Windows XP Professional sets the standard for desktop performance, security, and reliability.
    Windows XP Home Edition:
    Windows XP Home Edition, which is intended for home users, simplifies many aspects of networking and file management so that home users have a cleaner experience. In particular, Windows XP Home Edition has the following limitations compared with
    Windows XP Professional:
    ■ Computers running Windows XP Home Edition cannot join a domain.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not support the use of NTFS or print permissions. Instead, Windows XP Home Edition supports only Simple File Sharing.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not support the use of dynamic disks.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not support the Encrypting File System.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition supports only one processor, whereas Windows XP Professional supports two processors.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not include Internet Information Services.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not include Remote Desktop.
    ■ Windows XP Home Edition does not provide Remote Installation Services (RIS) support.

    Windows XP Media Center Edition:
    The Windows XP Media Center Edition 2004 operating system is available only on new Media Center PCsâ€â€Âcomputers with special hardware features that enable users to connect the computer as an integral part of a home entertainment system. Because of its special requirements, Media Center PCs running Windows XP Media Center Edition are available only from Microsoft PC manufacturer partners.
    See Also For more information about Windows XP Media Center Edition, visit
    Windows XP Tablet PC Edition:
    The Windows XP Tablet PC Edition operating system expands on Windows XP Professional, providing all the features and performance of Windows XP Professional, while also providing additional capabilities designed to take advantage of a touch-screen interface: pen input, handwriting recognition, and speech recognition. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition offers users the efficiency and dependability of Windows XP Professional. For developers, it offers a rich platform for creating new applications or extending their current applications to take advantage of Tablet PC handwriting and speech capabilities.
    See Also For more information about Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, visit
    Windows XP 64-Bit Edition:
    Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, which provides support for the 64-bit computing platforms, is designed to meet the demands of advanced technical workstation users who require large amounts of memory and floating point performance in areas such as mechanical design and analysis, 3D animation, video editing and composition, and scientific and high-performance computing applications. One of the key differences between the 64-bit and 32-bit platforms is that the 64-bit platform supports considerably more system memoryâ€â€Âup to 16 GB of physical RAM.
  2. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Identifying Major Features of Windows XP Service Pack 2

    As part of a major effort to increase the security of desktop computers, in 2004, Microsoft is releasing an update to Windows XP named Windows XP Service Pack 2. As with all Windows service packs, Windows XP Service Pack 2 includes all of the critical updates released for Windows XP to date. In addition, Service Pack 2 includes a large number of new enhancements to Windows XPâ€â€Âenhancements aimed at increasing the default level of security for the operating system. In addition to a new Security Center that provides at-a-glance security status for a computer, Service Pack 2 provides enhancements to the built-in software firewall in Windows XP (now named Microsoft Windows Firewall), to the Automatic Updates feature, and to Microsoft Internet Explorer.
  3. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Guidelines for Choosing a File System

    After you create the installation partition, Setup prompts you to select the file system with which to format the partition. Windows XP Professional can be installed on two file systems:

    File allocation table (FAT) Although Windows Setup references only file allocation table (FAT), there are actually two versions of FAT: FAT and FAT32. FAT is a 16-bit file system used in older versions of Windows. FAT32 is a 32-bit file system supported by Windows 95 original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Service Release 2, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000, and Windows XP.

    NTFS The preferred file system for Windows XP, NTFS provides more security and flexibility than FAT32. Microsoft recommends that you always use NTFS unless there is a specific reason to use another file system (such as when you are installing more than one operating system on a computer and one of those operating systems does not recognize NTFS partitions). NTFS is supported by Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows 2003 Server.

    Using NTFS:
    Use NTFS when the partition on which Windows XP Professional will reside requires any of the following features:
    File- and folder-level security NTFS allows you to control access to files and folders. Disk compression NTFS can compress files to store more data on the partition. Encryption NTFS allows you to encrypt file data on the physical hard disk by using the Microsoft Encrypting File System (EFS). The version of NTFS in Windows XP Professional supports remote storage, dynamic volumes, and mounting volumes to folders. Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000, and Windows NT are the only operating systems that can access data on a local hard disk formatted with NTFS.

    FAT and FAT32:
    FAT and FAT32 offer compatibility with other operating systems. You must format the system partition with either FAT or FAT32 if you will dual boot Windows XP Professional and another operating system that requires FAT or FAT32. FAT and FAT32 do not offer many of the features (for example, file-level security) that NTFS supports. Therefore, in most situations, you should format the hard disk with NTFS. The only reason to use FAT or FAT32 is for dual booting with an older operating system that does not support NTFS. If you are setting up a computer for dual booting, you need to format the system partition that contains the older version of Windows with FAT or FAT32. For example, if drive C is the system partition that holds Windows 98, you could format drive C as FAT or FAT32. You should then format the system partition that will hold Windows XP as NTFS. Finally, for multiple booting to be successful, the boot partition must be formatted using a file system that all installed operating systems can access. For example, if you are dual-booting between Windows XP and Windows 95, the boot partition (as well as the system partition on which Windows 95 is installed) would have to be formatted with FAT.

    Converting a FAT or FAT32 Volume to NTFS:
    Windows XP Professional provides the Convert command for converting a partition to NTFS without reformatting the partition and losing all the information on the partition. To use the Convert command, click Start, click Run, type cmd in the Open text box, and then click OK. This opens a command prompt, which you use to request the Convert command. The following example shows how you might use switches with the Convert command.
    Convert volume /FS:NTFS [/V] [/CvtArea:filename] [/NoSecurity] [/X]
    If you convert a system volume (or any volume that has files that are currently in use), the Convert command might not be able to convert the drive right away. Instead, Windows schedules the conversion to happen the next time Windows is restarted.
  4. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    File Sharing - HowTos

    Simple File Sharing, as its name implies, is a simplified sharing model that allows users to easily share folders and files with other local users on the same computer or with users in a workgroup without configuring NTFS permissions and standard shared folders. On computers running Windows XP Professional that are members of a workgroup, you can use Simple File Sharing or you can disable Simple File Sharing and use shared folder permissions. On computers running Windows XP Professional that are members of a domain, Simple File Sharing is not available.

    When Simple File Sharing is enabled, users have only one choice to makeâ€â€Âwhether a folder is shared or not. When a user shares a folder, that folder is accessible to all network users. Also, with Simple File Sharing, the user cannot assign shared folder per-missions. To enable or disable Simple File Sharing, in any open folder, click Tools and then click Folder Options. In the Folder Options dialog box, on the View tab, in the Advanced Settings list, select or clear the Use Simple File Sharing (Recommended) check box.

    When Simple File Sharing is disabled, you can control how users gain access to a shared folder by assigning shared folder permissions. Shared folder permissions are simpler than NTFS permissions.

    You grant or deny shared folder permissions. Generally, it is best to grant permissions to a group rather than to individual users. You should deny permissions only when it is necessary to override permissions that are otherwise applied, for example, when it is necessary to deny permission to a specific user who belongs to a group to which you have granted the permission. If you deny a shared folder permission to a user, the user will not have that permission. For example, to deny all remote access to a shared folder, deny the Full Control permission.

    To create shared folders on a computer running Windows XP Professional, you must be a member of the Administrators or Power Users groups. Also, users who are granted the Create Permanent Shared Objects user right are allowed to share folders. You can share only folders; you cannot share individual files. If you need to provide users network access to files, you must share the folder that contains the files.

    You can share any folder on a computer so that network users can access the folder.
    The following are characteristics of shared folder permissions:

    ■ Shared folder permissions apply to folders, not individual files. Because you can apply shared folder permissions only to the entire shared folder and not to individual files or subfolders in the shared folder, shared folder permissions provide less detailed security than NTFS permissions.
    ■ Shared folder permissions do not restrict users who access the folder locally by logging on to the computer. They apply only to users who connect to the folder over the network.
    ■ Shared folder permissions are the only way to secure network resources on a FAT volume, because NTFS permissions are not available on FAT volumes.
    ■ The default shared folder permission is Read, and it is assigned to the Everyone group when you share the folder.

    Security Alert:
    If you share a folder and do not change the default shared folder permissions (where the Everyone group is assigned the Read permission), the shared folder is effectively not protected from people reading the contents of the folder across the network. In this case, restriction from reading the folder depends entirely on local NTFS permissions.

    When you share a folder, you can give it a share name, provide comments to describe the folder and its content, control the number of users who have access to the folder, assign permissions, and create multiple share names for the folder.
    To share a folder, complete the following steps:
    1. Log on with a user account that is able to share folders.
    2. Right-click the folder that you want to share, and then click Properties.
    3. On the Sharing tab of the Properties dialog box, click Share This Folder and configure the options.

    Sharing Tab Options Description:
    Share Name: The name that users from remote locations use to connect to the shared folder. You must enter a share name. By default, this is the same name as the folder. You can type in a different name up to 80 characters long.
    Comment: An optional description for the share name. The comment appears in addition to the share name when users at client computers browse the server for shared folders. This comment can be used to identify contents of the shared folder.
    User Limit: The number of users who can concurrently connect to the shared folder. If you click Maximum Allowed as the user limit, Windows XP Professional supports up to 10 connections.
    Permissions: The shared folder permissions that apply only when the folder is accessed over the network. By default, the Everyone group is assigned Read for all new shared folders.
    Caching: The settings to configure offline access to this shared folder.
    New Share: The settings to configure more than one share name and set of permissions for this folder. This button appears only when the folder has already been shared.
  5. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Overview of Basic and Dynamic Disks

    Windows XP Professional supports two types of hard disk storage on desktop computers:
    basic disks and dynamic disks. (You cannot use dynamic disks on portable computers.)

    Basic Disks
    Basic disks are the traditional type of storage that is available in earlier versions of Microsoft Windows. Basic disks are also the default storage type in Windows XP, so all hard disks begin as basic disks. Windows XP recognizes all disks as basic by default, including all new installations and upgrades from previous versions of Windows.
    To use a dynamic disk, you must convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. On a basic disk, you must create one or more partitions (also called basic volumes). You must configure a basic disk with at least one partition. In fact, most computers that you will encounter have a single hard disk with one partition that takes up all the phys-ical space on the disk. You can also divide a hard disk into multiple partitions for the purpose of organizing file storage or supporting multiple operating systems on a single computer.
    You can create the following three types of partitions on a basic hard disk:
    Primary You can configure up to four primary partitions on a computer running
    a Windows operating system (three partitions if you also have an extended partition on the disk).
    You can configure any primary partition as the active (or bootable) drive, but only one primary partition is active at a time. Other primary drives are typically hidden from the operating system and are not assigned a drive letter.
    Extended An extended partition provides a way to exceed the four primary partition limit. You cannot format an extended partition with any file system. Rather, extended partitions serve as a shell in which you can create any number of logical partitions.
    Logical You can create any number of logical partitions inside an extended partition.
    Logical partitions are normally used for organizing files. All logical partitions
    are visible, no matter which operating system is started. Windows stores partition information for basic disks in the partition table, which is not part of any operating system (it is an area of the drive that is accessible by all operating systems). Other configuration options, such as drive letter assignments, are controlled by the operating system and are stored in the Windows Registry.

    Dynamic Disks
    Windows XP Professional supports dynamic disks (except on portable computers).
    Dynamic disks offer several advantages over basic disks:

    ■ You can divide a dynamic disk into many volumes. The basic disk concept of primary and extended partitions does not exist when using dynamic disks.

    ■ Windows stores configuration information for dynamic disks entirely on the disk. If there are multiple dynamic disks, Windows replicates information to all other disks so that each disk has a copy of the configuration information. This information is stored in the last 1 MB of the disk.

    ■ You can extend dynamic volumes by using contiguous or noncontiguous disk space. Dynamic volumes can also be made up of areas of disk space on more than one disk.

    Windows XP supports the following types of dynamic volumes

    Simple volume: A simple volume can contain disk space from a single disk and can be extended if necessary.
    Spanned volume: A spanned volume can contain disk space from 2 or more (up to a maximum of 32) disks. The amount of disk space from each disk can vary.
    You will most often use spanned volumes when a simple volume is running low on disk space and you need to extend the volume by using space on another hard disk. You can continue to extend spanned volumes to include areas from additional hard disks as necessary. When Windows writes data to a spanned volume, it writes data to the area on the first disk until the area is filled, and then writes data to the area on the second disk, and so on. There is no fault tolerance in spanned volumes. If any of the disks containing the spanned volume fail, you lose all data in the entire spanned volume.
    Striped volume: A striped volume can contain disk space from 2 or more (up to a maximum of 32) disks. Unlike spanned volumes, striped volumes require that you use an identical amount of disk space from each disk. When Windows writes data to a striped volume, it divides the data into 64 KB chunks and writes to the disks in a fixed order. Thus, Windows will split a 128 KB file into two 64 KB chunks, and then stores each chunk on a separate disk. Striped volumes provide increased performance because it is faster to read or write two smaller pieces of a file on two drives than to read or write the entire file on a single drive. However, you cannot extend striped volumes, and they provide no fault tolerance. If any of the disks that contain the striped volume fail, you lose all data on the volume. Striped volumes are also referred to as RAID-0.

    Real World
    Supporting Multiple Operating Systems

    Basic disks are generally sufficient for a computer with a single hard disk. There are really two situations in which you might want to use a dynamic disk. The first is if you need to extend a volume to contain unallocated disk space that is not contiguous (for example, if you have extra free space on the same disk, but not directly adjacent to the volume you need to extend, or if you have free space on another disk). The second reason is if you want to configure a striped volume to increase read/write speed.
    If you plan to use multiple operating systems on the same computer, your choice of disk types will be limited by the operating systems you want to install.
    Although multibooting is not used as much as it used to be, it continues to be a useful feature if you are using Windows XP but occasionally need to replicate older computing environments. (You will probably find an alternate solution such as Microsoft Virtual PC more efficient and easy to configure.) If you decide to use multibooting, you are limited in the following ways:

    ■ If you need to install Windows XP Professional along with any operating system other than Windows 2000 Professional, you must use a basic disk. You should create a primary disk partition for each operating system.

    ■ If you have a single dynamic disk, you can install only one operating system:
    Windows XP Professional or Windows 2000 Professional (the only desktop
    operating systems that support dynamic disks).

    ■ If you have two or more hard disks installed in your computer, each dynamic disk can contain one installation of Windows XP Professional or Windows 2000. No other operating systems can start from a dynamic disk. Windows XP Home Edition does not support dynamic disks.
  6. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Hardware Profiles

    With Windows XP Professional’s capability to reconfigure network settings when it detects a new network, hardware profiles are not as important as they used to be, and it is likely that you will never need to use them. Nonetheless, hardware profiles are still used, and you should understand how to create and configure them.
    Hardware profiles are useful when you have one or more hardware devices that you want to disable sometimes and enable other times. Rather than enabling and disabling the devices using Device Manager each time you start Windows, you can create hardware profiles in which the devices are enabled or disabled, and then just choose the correct hardware profile during startup.
    This functionality is particularly useful when you have an older portable computer that does not support hot docking (the capability for Windows XP to automatically determine whether the portable computer is docked and reconfigure devices appropriately).

    Hardware profiles provide a way to configure a single computer for different situations.
    Within a profile, you can enable or disable specific hardware devices and configure those devices differently. As an example, assume that you have a user with a portable computer. When he is at home, the computer is connected to an external monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer. When the user takes the computer away from home, none of these devices is connected. You could set his computer up with two hardware profiles:
    one in which those devices were enabled, and one in which they were disabled.
    Whenever the computer starts, the user would choose the hardware profile to use, preventing him from having to make configuration changes or be notified of missing devices.
    By default, Windows creates one hardware profile named Profile 1 during installation.
    To create an additional hardware profile, perform the following steps:

    1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.

    2. In the Control Panel window, select Performance And Maintenance.

    3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select System.

    4. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Hardware tab, click the Hardware Profiles button.

    5. In the Hardware Profiles dialog box, shown in Figure 6-9, select Profile 1 (Current), and then click the Copy button. You cannot create a new profile directly; you must copy an existing profile and then modify the copy.

    6. In the Copy Profile dialog box, type a name for the new profile, and then click OK.

    7. In the Hardware Profiles dialog box, select the new profile you just named, and then click the Properties button.

    8. In the Properties dialog box for the profile, you can configure two options:
    Select the This Is A Portable Computer check box if the computer is a portable computer that uses a docking station (and if that docking station is one that Windows XP supports). When a supported docking station is used, Windows XP can determine whether a portable computer is docked or undocked, and then apply the correct profile automatically. If you do not use a docking station (or just prefer to set up and control your own profiles), leave this option deselected.
    Select the Always Include This Profile As An Option When Windows Starts
    check box if you want the profile to appear on the boot menu as a selectable profile.

    9. In the Properties dialog box for the profile, click OK to return to the Hardware Profiles dialog box.

    10. Click OK to return to the System Properties dialog box, and then click OK again to return to Windows.

    After you have created a profile, you can control generally how Windows XP treats profiles by using the same Hardware Profiles dialog box you used to create the profile.
    (Open the System Properties dialog box, switch to the Hardware tab, and then click the Hardware Profiles button to access the dialog box.)

    First, you can specify how Windows uses hardware profiles during startup. You have the following options:

    ■ Have Windows wait until you select a hardware profile before it continues booting.
    ■ Have Windows automatically select the first hardware profile in the list and continue booting after a specified amount of time. If you select this option, you can specify how long Windows should wait before going on without you. The default is 30 seconds.

    You also can specify the order in which hardware profiles appear in the list during startup.
    The order is important, mostly because it is the first profile on the list that Windows will boot if you configure Windows to select a profile automatically. Select any profile on the list and use the up or down buttons on the right to move the profile around.
  7. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    How to Configure Advanced Power Options

    To configure your computer to use advanced power options, open the Power Options Properties dialog box and click the Advanced tab. There are two options that always appear on the Advanced tab. If you want an icon to appear in the notification area that displays the current power status for your computer (plugged-in or on battery power) and provides quick power-management access, select the Always Show Icon On The Taskbar check box. The second check box on the Advanced tab is Prompt For Password
    When Computer Resumes From Standby. Selecting this check box causes Windows to prompt you for your Windows password when your computer comes out of standby mode.

    If you have a portable computer, you will also see a Power Buttons section on the Advanced tab. This section allows you to configure what happens when you press the power button on the computer, when you close the lid (thereby pressing the small button signaling that the lid is closed, and when you press the sleep button (if your computer has one). Options that you can choose for each of these buttons include shutting down the computer, sending the computer to standby mode, and having the computer enter hibernation.

    The Prompt For Password When Computer Resumes From Standby box will not be displayed if the computer does not support standby mode (this is the case with many desktop computers).
  8. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    How to Configure Advanced Power Management

    Windows XP Professional supports Advanced Power Management (APM), whichhelps reduce the power consumption of your system. To configure your computer touse APM, use the Power Options Properties dialog box. Click the APM tab and select the Enable Advanced Power Management Support check box. If the APM tab is unavailable, your computer is compliant with a newer standard named Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), which automatically enables Advanced Power Management Support and disables the APM tab. You must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group to configure APM.

    If your computer does not have an APM BIOS installed, Windows XP Professional does not install APM, so there will not be an APM tab in the Power Options Properties dialog box. However, your computer can still function as an ACPI computer if it has an ACPIbased BIOS, which takes over system configuration and power management from the Plug and Play BIOS.

    If your laptop has an ACPI-based BIOS, you can insert and remove PC cards on the fly, and Windows XP Professional automatically detects and configures them without requiring you to restart your machine. This is known as dynamic configuration of PC cards. There are two other important features for mobile computers that rely on dynamic Plug and Play: hot and warm docking/undocking and hot swapping of Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) and floppy devices. Hot and warm docking/undocking means you can dock and undock from the Windows XP Professional Start menu without turning off your computer. Windows XP Professional automatically creates two hardware profiles for laptop computers: one for the docked state and one for the undocked state.
    Hot swapping of IDE and floppy devices means that you can remove and swap devices such as floppy drives, DVD/CD drives, and hard drives without shutting down your system or restarting your system. Windows XP Professional automatically detects and configures these devices.
  9. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    How to Configure an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device connected between a computer or another piece of electronic equipment and a power source, such as an electrical outlet.
    The UPS ensures that the electrical flow to the computer is not interrupted because of a power outage and, in most cases, protects the computer against potentially damaging events such as power surges and brownouts. When a power outage occurs, the UPS provides a limited amount of time for you to save documents, exit applications, and turn off the computer. Different UPS models offer different levels of protection.
    To configure your UPS, click the UPS tab in the Power Options Properties dialog box.
    The UPS tab shows the current power source, the estimated UPS run time, the estimated UPS capacity, and the battery condition. In the UPS tab, click Configure to display the UPS Selection dialog box. It displays a list of manufacturers from which you can select the manufacturer of your UPS.

    Check the Windows Catalog to make sure that the UPS you are considering is compatible with Windows XP Professional before you purchase it.
  10. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    How to Manage Services by Using the Services Console

    The Services console is the primary method for managing services on a computer running Windows XP Professional. You can access the Services console in the following ways:

    ■ Open the Administrative Tools folder (from Control Panel) and double-click Services.

    ■ Open the Computer Management window, expand the Services And Applications node, and then click Services.

    ■ Create a custom Microsoft Management Console (MMC) console and add the Services console.

    No matter which way you open the Services console, shown in Figure 18-1, the interface is the same. In the right pane, you will see a long list of the available services along with a description, the current status of the service (Stopped or Started), the Startup Type (Automatic, Manual, or Disabled), and how the service logs on to the computer.

    When you select a service (such as the DNS Client service), you are shown a detailed description that tells you what the service does. Some of these
    descriptions also tell you what happens if you stop or disable the service.

    How to Stop, Start, Pause, Resume, and Restart a Service
    After selecting a service in the Services console, you can control the service in the following ways:

    Stop a service: When you stop a service, the service becomes unavailable. The service does not restart until you start the service again or until the next time Windows starts up (if the service is configured to start automatically during startup).
    The Services console does not let you stop a service on which other services depend. You must stop services in the correct order of dependency. To stop a service, click the service, and then click the Stop button (or right-click the service, and then click Stop).

    Start a service: You can start a service that you have stopped or a service that is enabled, but for which the startup type is set to Manual. To start a service, click the service, and then click the Start button (or right-click the service, and then click Start).

    Pause a service: Only some services can be paused. When you pause a service, the service refuses any new connections but does not disconnect existing connections to the service. An example of such a service is the World Wide Web Publishing service, which is the component of Internet Information Services (IIS) that allows users to connect to a Web site hosted on the local computer. When you pause this service, IIS no longer allows users to connect to any local Web sites, but it does not disconnect existing users from the Web site. Pausing a service allows you to shut down a service gracefully, without interrupting users or other services. After the users or services that are using a service stop using it, you can then stop the service. To pause a service, click the service, and then click the Pause button (or right-click the service, and then click Pause).

    Resume a service: When you pause a service, the Resume command lets you resume the service without restarting it. To resume a paused service, click the service and the click the Resume button (or right-click the service, and then click Resume).

    Restart a service: Restarting a service works just like stopping a service and then starting it again. To restart a service, click the service, and then click the Restart button (or right-click the service, and then click Restart). You might choose to restart a service during troubleshooting or when you need to immediately apply changed configuration settings.

    How to Change the Startup Type of a Service
    Aside from basic commands like starting and stopping a service, most configuration of a service happens by using the service’s Properties dialog box. To open the Properties dialog box for a service, right-click the service and click Properties. The General tab of a service’s Properties dialog box shows you information about the service, such as the service name, display name (what you see in the Services console), description, and path to the executable file for the service.

    You can use the Startup Type drop-down list on the General tab to configure a service for one of the following startup types:

    Automatic: The service starts automatically during Windows startup.
    Manual The service is enabled, but does not start automatically during Windows startup. You must start the service by using the Services console or by using one of the other methods.

    Disabled: The service does not start automatically during Windows startup. In addition, the service cannot be started manually or by another service or program. You must set the service to the Automatic or Manual startup type before it can be started. You should disable unnecessary services to prevent them from accidentally starting and potentially introducing a security vulnerability.

    How to Change the Logon Properties of a Service
    To start prior to user logon and to be able to access the system resources needed to perform its function, a service must be able to log on to a computer. Some services are configured by default to log on to the Local System account, which is a powerful account that has full access to a computer. Other services are configured to log on to LocalService or NetworkService accounts, which are special built-in accounts that are
    similar to authenticated user accounts. These accounts have the same level of access to resources and objects as members of the Users groups. Using this more limited access helps enhance security.

    Most services running in Windows XP Professional log on using the Local System account, though a few use the Network Service account. For the most part, you will leave services configured to log on with the default account used for the service. If you need to specify a different account, use the Log On tab of the service’s Properties dialog box. Click This Account, and then type in the account name and password.

    If you have more than one hardware profile configured on a computer. You can also use the Log On tab to control whether a service is enabled or disabled for a particular profile. Click a profile, and then click Enable or Disable.

    How to Change the Recovery Options for a Service
    By default, when a service fails to start, Windows XP Professional records an error in the System log file, but takes no further action. Services that are dependent on the failed service also fail to start. You can configure certain recovery actions to occur when a service fails to start, though.

    To set up recovery actions to take place when a service fails, use these steps:

    1. In the Services console, right-click the service, and then click Properties.

    2. In the Properties dialog box for the service, click the Recovery tab.
    The Recovery tab lets you configure an action to take on the first
    failure, the second failure, and on all subsequent failures. The actions you can configure include the following:

    ❑ Take No Action. This is the default choice.

    ❑ Restart The Service. Windows attempts to restart the service if the service does not start.

    ❑ Run A Program. Windows runs a custom program, which you can use to log
    error details or even send a notification of the failure. When you select this
    action, the options in the Run Program section of the Recovery tab become
    available. Type the path for the program and any command-line parameters
    you want to use, and indicate whether you want Windows to add the fail
    count (the number of times the service has failed) to the end of the command.

    ❑ Restart The Computer. Windows restarts the computer. This option provides a good last resort for recovery on important services. Often, a service does not start because services on which it is dependent failed. You should use this setting only on server computers. If a client computer automatically restarted, it could disturb the user’s work.

    3. Click OK.

    How to Determine Service Dependency
    Many services depend on other services, which means that the other services must start successfully for the services that depend on them to start. You can view the service dependency of any service by using the Dependencies tab of the service’s Properties dialog box.

    The top list shows the services on which the current service depends. The bottom list shows the services that depend on the current service. For the IIS Admin service, the service depends directly on the remote procedure
    call (RPC) service and the Security Accounts Manager service (which itself depends on the RPC service). The IIS Admin also has its own dependents: the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and World Wide Web Publishing services.
    Last edited: Apr 23, 2006
  11. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    What Is the Backup Utility?

    The Windows Backup utility provides a simple interface for backing up and restoring data. To access the Backup Or Restore Wizard, on the Start menu, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup. Alternatively, on the Start menu, you can click Run, type ntbackup, and then click OK.

    You can use Backup in two modes:

    Wizard mode:
    In Wizard mode, Backup steps you through the process of backing up or restoring your data.

    Advanced mode:
    In Advanced mode, Backup presents a more traditional backup interface for selecting files and backup locations.

    The Backup Or Restore Wizard:
    In Wizard mode, you will use the Backup Or Restore Wizard, to back up or restore data. By default, Backup launches the Backup Or Restore Wizard when you launch the utility. You can use the Backup Or Restore Wizard to back up data manually or to schedule unattended backup jobs on a regular basis. You can back up data to a file or to a tape. Files can be stored on hard disks, in shared folders on a network, or on drives with removable media (such as Iomega Zip and Jaz drives or tape drives).

    Windows Backup does not support writing directly to a CD-ROM or DVD during the backup process. However, you can back up to a hard drive and then manually copy the backup file to optical media.

    On the Welcome To The Backup Or Restore Wizard page, click Next. The Backup Or Restore page allows you to specify whether you want to back up files and settings or restore files and settings.

    Advanced Mode:
    You can also use the Backup utility in Advanced mode, by clicking Advanced Mode on the Backup Or Restore Wizard’s Welcome page. If you want to have Backup start in Advanced mode each time you start the program, clear the Always Start In Wizard Mode check box on the Welcome Page before clicking Advanced Mode.

    Advanced mode provides access to a number of options that you cannot access by using the Backup Or Restore Wizard.
  12. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    How to Share a Folder on a Remote Computer by Using Shared Folders

    If you want to share a folder on a remote computer, you use the Computer Management window to connect to the remote computer.

    Note Using Computer Management (or the Shared Folders snap-in) is the only way to share a folder on a remote computer. Otherwise, you need to be physically located at the computer where the folder resides to share it.

    To share a folder on a remote computer, use these steps:
    1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
    2. In the Control Panel window, click Performance And Maintenance.
    3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, click Administrative Tools.
    4. In the Administrative Tools folder, double-click Computer Management.
    5. In the Computer Management window, click Computer Management (Local).
    6. Click Action, and then click Connect To Another Computer.
    Windows XP displays the Select Computer dialog box.
    7. Type the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) of the computer to which you want to connect or click Browse to locate the computer on the network. Click OK when you have specified the computer.
    8. Use the Create A Shared Folder Wizard (described in the previous section) to create a new folder and share it.

    Note If you want to create and manage shared folders on remote computers and you are not in a domain, you must create the same user account with the same password on each computer. In workgroups, you do not have a central database that contains all user accounts. Instead, each computer in the workgroup has its own local security database.
  13. AhmedMostafa257

    AhmedMostafa257 Active Member

    Apr 11, 2006
    Likes Received:
    Configuring a LAN Connection

    Much of the configuration of a LAN connection happens in the Network Connections window. Right-clicking a particular connection provides a shortcut menu with commands for working with the connection.

    How to View the Status of a Connection

    To view the current status of a connection, right-click the connection, and then click Status. This action opens the Local Area Connection Status dialog box. The General tab of this dialog box shows the connection status and the activity on the connection since it was last enabled (the number of data packets sent and received over the connection).

    The Support tab of the Local Area Connection Status dialog box shows you the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration
    information (Internet Protocol [IP] address, subnet mask, and so on) for the connection.

    Click Details to view extended TCP/IP information, including the physical address of the network adapter, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server and lease information, and Domain Name System (DNS) server addresses.

    You can also view the TCP/IP information for connections using the ipconfig command-line utility. The advantage of using ipconfig is that by typing "ipconfig /all" at the command prompt, you can view information for all connections on the computer at once.

    How to Rename a Local Area Connection

    If you have more than one network adapter installed, Windows names the first connection Local Area Connection, the second connection Local Area Connection 2, and soon. For clarity, consider using a naming scheme that makes it easy to identify what the different connections are for. To rename a connection, use these steps:
    1. In the Network Connections window, right-click the connection, and then click
    2. Type the new name for the connection, and then press ENTER.
    How to Disable and Enable a Local Area Connection
    There might be cases in which you will want to temporarily disable a connection without deleting it. To disable and enable a connection, use these steps:
    1. In the Network Connections window, right-click the connection, and then click Disable.
    Windows disables the connection. The icon for the connection appears dimmed in the Network Connections window.
    2. To enable a connection, right-click the connection, and then click Enable.

    How to Bridge a Connection

    The Network Bridge feature allows you to connect network segments (groups of networked computers) without having to use a router or bridge. The feature essentially turns the computer running Windows XP Professional into a router by allowing it to pass data between network adapters installed on the computer, each of which is attached to a different network segment. Network Bridge allows you to connect different types of network media. Before Network Bridge, if you were using more than one media type, you needed a different subnet for each media type. Packet forwarding would be required because different protocols are used on different media types. Network Bridge automates the configuration that is required to forward information from one media type to another.

    To configure Network Bridge, do the following:
    1. In the Network Connections window, select each of the network connections that you want to make part of the bridge.
    2. Right-click one of the selected network connections, and then click Bridge

    The following are important Network Bridge considerations:
    ■ Only Ethernet adapters, IEEE-1394 adapters, or Ethernet-compatible adapters, such as wireless or home phone network adapter (HPNA), can be part of the Network Bridge.
    ■ Adapters that have Windows Firewall or ICS enabled cannot be included in the Network Bridge.
    ■ You can add connections to the Network Bridge after it has been created by using the Add To Bridge menu command.
    ■ Only one bridge can exist on a Windows XP Professional computer, but it can be used to connect as many different media types as the computer can physically accommodate.
    ■ You cannot create a bridge connection on computers running Windows 2000 or earlier.

    How to Repair a Connection

    Sometimes LAN connections stop working. This problem can happen for many reasons, including problems with the configuration of the network connection. When you are troubleshooting a networking problem, a good place to start is by using the Repair function provided by Windows XP Professional.

    To repair a LAN connection, in the Network Connections window, right-click the connection, and then click Repair. When you use the Repair command, Windows takes the following actions:

    1. Attempts to renew the connections DHCP lease, which is equivalent to using the ipconfig /renew command at the command prompt.
    2. Flushes the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache, which is equivalent to using the arp -d command at the command prompt.
    3. Reloads the NetBIOS name cache, which is equivalent to using the nbtstat -R command at the command prompt. A NetBIOS name update is also sent, which is equivalent to using the nbtstat –RR command.
    4. Flushes the Domain Name System (DNS) cache, which is equivalent to using the ipconfig /flushdns command at the command prompt.
    5. Registers the computer’s DNS name, which is equivalent to using the ipconfig /registerdns command at the command prompt.
    6. Restarts IEEE 802.1x Authentication.
    Last edited: Apr 23, 2006
  14. yicker124

    yicker124 Member

    Jun 26, 2008
    Likes Received:
    Outstanding! Many thanks for concise and exact info. :righton:
  15. stephen4x

    stephen4x Well-Known Member

    Aug 5, 2008
    Likes Received:
    A fellow yicker perhaps? :nah_nah:

Share This Page